A haunting impression of Ukraine’s war is an overhead look at of Mariupol.


The online video exhibits whole neighborhoods of massive condominium buildings seemingly in ruins. Which is the vision from above. Now, suppose you ended up just one of the people today residing in that graphic. Many people have taken shelter in basements for weeks. And though Russia statements to be backing off the money city, Kyiv, supposedly as aspect of peace talks, they have said no such point about that coastal town besieged by Russian troops.

MARTINEZ: Individuals who make it out of Mariupol head west for protection. They cross a bridge over the Dnieper River at a town identified as Zaporizhzhia. And NPR’s Jason Beaubien is there. Jason, who are the persons you might be viewing there?

JASON BEAUBIEN, BYLINE: I imply, we are just looking at folks packed into automobiles who are coming out. They’re – you know, it’s all sorts of persons. It can be aged people. It’s youthful individuals. I was in this parking lot, and I met Angelina Voychenko and Yuliya Bortnik. They just arrived, alongside with five other persons, in this tiny, small compact sedan.

Unidentified Man or woman #1: (Non-English language spoken).

Unidentified Man or woman #2: (Non-English language spoken).

BEAUBIEN: So they’re describing listed here just their pleasure of ultimately having via the Russian-controlled parts of Ukraine and finally seeing a Ukrainian flag and Ukrainian soldiers again at another checkpoint. They’re just overjoyed. They’d been on the highway for a 7 days. They’d been sheltering in a basement in Mariupol. And they stated they were just praying that they’d make it out alive.

MARTINEZ: What takes place when they test to make it out?

BEAUBIEN: You know, you have to try to remember that most of the individuals who are in people basements, in those people bunkers, they have no energy, no cellphone support, no online. They have no way to know irrespective of whether it truly is risk-free to depart or not to go away. They you should not have GPS. You know, each and every man or woman that I was talking to experienced been down in a basement or a bomb shelter. Most of the automobiles that are out on the streets, they had their home windows blown out mainly because of all the bomb blasts in Mariupol. So these individuals are acquiring jointly, packing as lots of people today as they can into these defeat-up autos, and then they’re telling me that after they start driving, it turns out the primary bridge out of Mariupol has been ruined. Nevertheless, all around them there is this consistent risk of shelling and snipers. A number of individuals advised me that it took multiple attempts to get out right before they actually ended up capable to make it.

Then on the street, they’re stating that they are currently being stopped by Russian soldiers. We’re obtaining these harrowing stories of people getting strip-searched for weapons out in the chilly. Russian soldiers are obsessed with people’s phones, and they want to see what data may be on there. I fulfilled this youthful male, Illya. He did not want to give his entire name. He reported he’d deleted all the social media applications off his cellphone, however the troopers observed in his Google lookup record a mention of Russian warships, and they had him lying facial area down on the flooring with a gun to his head and said they were heading to make him confess to getting a spy.

ILLYA: (Non-English language spoken).

Unknown INTERPRETER: They took him to the basement, and he imagined he would never see his relatives once again. He requested if he could see his family members for the final time, but they instructed him, you would by no means see them.

BEAUBIEN: And soon after keeping him down there for a number of hrs, Illya suggests a Russian soldier available to permit him go if his family would spend 200 euros to release him.

MARTINEZ: Jason, let us chat about when this may possibly finish simply because negotiators held peace talks yesterday. Ukrainians presented some attainable upcoming conditions for peace.

BEAUBIEN: Correct.

MARTINEZ: Russia claimed that it will reduce its attacks in the vicinity of Kyiv and one more town wherever they have been stalled in any case. So what do Ukrainians consider about all this?

BEAUBIEN: Persons listed here are very skeptical. Of course, you know, Russia has invaded when they stated that they were not. People today are not taking this as the conclusion of the war. But individuals are content that, you know, talks are going on. Hopefully, this is a stage in the right way. But it is form of a odd point to say, we are going to prevent attacking Kyiv, and nevertheless these attacks keep on on areas like Mariupol and other towns.

MARTINEZ: NPR’s Jason Beaubien. Many thanks, Jason.

BEAUBIEN: You happen to be welcome.


MARTINEZ: The Biden administration has specified the go-in advance for one more COVID vaccine booster shot for people aged 50 and older and all those who are immunocompromised, which, Steve, given that you and I are both equally at least halfway to 100 several years outdated, means that we are suitable.

INSKEEP: (Laughter) At minimum, you say. But just simply because you can get an additional booster shot, does that imply you require to?

MARTINEZ: Listed here to assist us respond to that concern is NPR well being correspondent Maria Godoy. Maria, why are federal wellbeing officials recommending second booster shots for certain teams?

MARIA GODOY, BYLINE: Nicely, the COVID vaccine booster shots have demonstrated highly helpful at preventing extreme ailment and dying, but immunity does wane around time. And federal health officers are anxious about the people today considered to be at best hazard of receiving serious COVID. That consists of folks 12 and up with weakened immune systems. It also contains persons starting up at age 50. Officials are recommending a 2nd booster for both these teams if they experienced their to start with booster at minimum 4 months ago.

MARTINEZ: All right, so I am on the younger side of 50.

GODOY: (Laughter).

MARTINEZ: Why are they beginning so youthful, if I might say so, Maria?

GODOY: Effectively, this is Dr. Peter Marks of the Fda.

PETER MARKS: We know that men and women in the age selection from about 50 to 65, about a 3rd of them have important healthcare comorbidities.

GODOY: And by comorbidities, he means disorders like weight problems, lung disorder, diabetic issues, which is quite common in this age team. These can drastically raise the danger of acquiring very seriously unwell from COVID or even dying.

MARTINEZ: Then what about individuals who are over 50 and do not have fundamental well being situations?

GODOY: Yeah. So many specialists NPR spoke with say if you happen to be in your 50s and healthful, you will find no will need to operate out and get a next booster. Dr. Peter Chin-Hong is an infectious disease expert at UCSF. He factors to a review from Israel that identified folks 60 and up who received a next booster experienced a lower possibility of serious results and dying than people who only got a single booster, but he claims the bottom line is owning any booster was actually protecting.

PETER CHIN-HONG: Whether or not or not you obtained a few photographs or four photographs, the survival charge was really substantial. So in which does that depart us? It leaves us in a predicament wherever you probably must stroll to go to get the second booster if you’re suitable, almost certainly walk a minimal faster the more mature you are.

GODOY: So the more mature you are, the bigger the benefit of a 2nd booster. But he suggests acquiring that first booster shot is most significant.

MARTINEZ: Alright, another state of affairs – what if you have not too long ago had COVID? Does that transform issues?

GODOY: I questioned that of Dr. Preeti Malani. She’s an infectious disease physician and geriatrician at the University of Michigan. And she notes that a great deal of Us citizens received infected for the duration of the omicron surge.

PREETI MALANI: You will find a imagined that specifically persons who had COVID and are also vaccinated and boosted – that they most likely get a free of charge go for at the very least a few months. And in these situations, you may well want to hold out.

GODOY: There’s good proof that a recent infection in essence acts like an additional shot to rev up your immune technique. So you have a number of months in advance of you require to assume about receiving one more booster.

MARTINEZ: So thinking then if – is there, like, a ideal or best time to get a 2nd booster?

GODOY: Very well, ideally, you’d want to pump up your immune process appropriate right before another surge, but it is unclear when that will take place. And if you do it way too quickly, that added protection will eventually wear off. As one particular qualified mentioned, it truly is a very little little bit like making an attempt to time the inventory sector.

MARTINEZ: NPR’s Maria Godoy. Many thanks a lot.

GODOY: My pleasure.


MARTINEZ: Tens of hundreds of most cancers individuals are suing Johnson & Johnson.

INSKEEP: Most are women of all ages who say asbestos in J&J toddler powder manufactured them unwell. The organization denies that and is utilizing a individual bankruptcy filing to hold off the lawsuits or even block them.

MARTINEZ: Let’s carry in NPR’s Brian Mann. Brian, you noted on how J&J’s bankruptcy maneuver impacted a person girl, Hanna Wilt. Remind us of her tale.

BRIAN MANN, BYLINE: Yeah, A. Hanna Wilt sued J&J, claiming asbestos in Johnson’s infant powder gave her a horrible variety of cancer identified as mesothelioma. J&J denies wrongdoing and suggests their product or service was risk-free. And normally, this is the type of disagreement a lawsuit like this would settle. Did J&J do anything mistaken? In its place, J&J has utilised this bankruptcy maneuver to free all of these lawsuits, together with Wilt’s. And when I spoke to her, she was outraged.

HANNA WILT: What I see is who can engage in the video game greatest? Massive firms striving to do the job the process in a way that they do not have to acquire complete obligation is not a little something new.

MANN: And, A, Hanna Wilt died in February at age 27, even though her case was still tangled up in this legal maneuver. I really should say, we asked J&J repeatedly for an interview about this, and they declined.

MARTINEZ: Okay, so how is this possible? I signify, how can businesses use individual bankruptcy court docket if they are not bankrupt?

MANN: Yeah, it can be intricate, but it goes a thing like this. Let us say your precious, rewarding company has been accused of doing a little something definitely negative. You’re struggling with lawsuits. And so what you may possibly do is spin off a subsidiary and push all the lawsuits, all that hazard, onto the harmony sheet of the new, individual firm. Then you shove that company into personal bankruptcy. Then possibly you present to pay back some dollars to help form of do the job out a bankruptcy settlement. And so these maneuvers are happening extra normally, and they’re extremely controversial. And a single matter critics stage to is that these types of offers are only accessible to those who are wealthy enough to shell out for these kinds of big settlements.

MARTINEZ: And Johnson & Johnson has applied this maneuver right before. What are some other illustrations?

MANN: Yeah, we ended up getting with NPR’s reporting that these individual bankruptcy maneuvers have shaped some of the most significant courtroom fights around the very last several yrs. Customers of the Sackler relatives who possess Purdue Pharma are not on their own bankrupt, but they’ve available to shell out $6 billion as section of a bankruptcy deal. The U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Committee and the Boy Scouts, also not bankrupt – they have loads of assets – but they, as well, have used individual bankruptcy methods just lately to block lawsuits connected to little one sexual assaults.

MARTINEZ: Why are bankruptcy judges enabling this?

MANN: Yeah, it really is attention-grabbing. In some elements of the U.S., these individual bankruptcy maneuvers are not even authorized. But some judges believe that these are methods to bring difficult litigation to a close. It’s a way to properly slash offers. Choose Michael Kaplan, who’s overseeing the J&J bankruptcy, laid out the argument in a new ruling that occasionally individual bankruptcy courts are the finest position to resolve cases, even when they you should not include bankrupt businesses.

MARTINEZ: Is everyone hoping to rein this in?

MANN: There are appeals right now just before appeals courts. Also, Congress is taking into consideration some variety of legislation that may rein in this apply. But for now, the gates are extensive open up. And what we observed is far more and additional corporations are on the lookout to do this when accused of wrongdoing – turning to bankruptcy courts to establish firewalls around their belongings.

MARTINEZ: NPR’s Brian Mann. Many thanks a good deal.

MANN: Thank you.

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